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How to Set Up Remote Desktop in Linux

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We will see here how to use remote desktop from Windows or GNU/Linux systems to a GNU/Linux X.Org or a Wayland display servers. As we will see it's completly different dependly on which display server we use.

Know your display server

As explained above, depending of your display server, screen sharing configuration won't be the same. So the first thing to do is to identify display server.

  • With loginctl command
std@host:~$ loginctl SESSION UID USER SEAT TTY 5 1000 std seat0 tty2 std@host:~$ loginctl show-session 5 -p Type Type=wayland
  • Or with $XDG_SESSION_TYPE variable from the desktop environment
Linux terminal $XDG_SESSION_TYPE

Screen Sharing With Wayland Display Server

In Wayland, the native VNC support is broken, so we will use gnome-remote-desktop which offer remote desktop sharing using VNC with PipeWire.


  • Debian : GNU/Linux 10 (buster)
  • Desktop environment : GNOME 3.3
  • Mutter / wayland : 3.30

Network diagram

Network diagram vnc server and client

Install Softwares

root@host:~# apt install gnome-remote-desktop

Network Configuration

We need to set a network configuration that will be associate later to screen sharing profile.

  • Open Advanced Network :
Gnome Shell Advanced Network
  • Edit the network connection :
Gnome Shell Network Connections
  • Set your IP Address :
Network diagram vnc server and client
  • Now go to Settings :
Gnome Shell Settings
  • From Settings go to Sharing then Screen Sharing :
Gnome Shell Settings
  • Configure Screen Sharing settings :
Gnome Shell Settings

Screen Sharing With X.Org / X11 Display Server

With X11 we can use classic VNC Server, so let's see how to do it with x11vnc server.


  • Debian : GNU/Linux 10 (buster)
  • xorg : 7.7
  • x11vnc : 0.9

Network diagram

Network diagram vnc server and client

Open Xorg Session

From GDM3 (GNOME Display Manager) we will select Xorg GNOME session.

GDM Open Gnome Xorg

Install Softwares

  • We now install our VNC server
root@host:~# apt install x11vnc

Network Configuration

Here, we can use classic method and edit /etc/network/interface or use graphical one (see above).

auto ens192 iface ens192 inet static address netwmask gateway dns-nameserver

Run x11vnc

  • Get Display number
std@host:~$ echo $DISPLAY Linux Terminal echo $DISPLAY
  • Here we specify port number 5900 (default) as the port to listen to and on display :0.
std@host:~$ x11vnc -rfbport 5900 -display :0
  • It's also possible to connect to the Gnome Display Manager interface (Gnome log screen) :
std@host:~$ sudo x11vnc -rfbport 5900 -display :0 -auth /var/lib/gdm/:0.Xauth
  • Or to the lightdm interface (Xfce log screen :
std@host:~$ sudo x11vnc -rfbport 5900 -display :0 -auth /var/run/lightdm/root/:0

Set password (Optional)

For security reasons it is recommended to protect the vnc access with a password.

  • To do so install tigervnc-common :
std@host:~$ sudo apt install tigervnc-common
  • Set a vnc password :
std@host:~$ vncpasswd vnc
  • Run your x11vnc server :
std@host:~$ x11vnc -display :0 -rfbauth vnc -rfbport 5900

Connection from the clients

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Connect from a Windows host

Now from the Windows host, download a VNC client. VNC Viewer is a good one.

  • Run the VNC Viewer and connect to the server ( if you didn't set default port number) :
VNC Viewer Main Interface
  • Enter the Password previously set
VNC Viewer Main Interface
  • Continue despite the warning :
VNC Viewer certificate warning
  • Once connected, if you have unstable display, go to properties (to me it happened with Wayland).
VNC Viewer Properties
  • And manually set Picture quality
VNC Viewer Properties picture quality high

Connect from a Linux host

We can use anyone of the many VNC Clients available. Example with tigervnc :

root@host:~# apt install tigervnc std@host:~$ vncviewer

caught XIO error

  • If like me you have a lot of vnc crash with the caught XIO error add the -noxdamage (server side) :
std@host:~$ x11vnc -display :0 -noxdamage -rfbport 5900
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